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اللهم يا الله إجعلنا لك كما تريد وكن لنا يا الله فوق ما نريد واعنا يارب العالمين ان نفهم مرادك من كل لحظة مرت علينا أو ستمر علينا يا الله

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 The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:41

The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of
humanity's guidance, which was to illuminate the world without end,
should rise from the orb of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of
this terrestrial globe, it needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the
gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impress



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:42

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:44

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober, industrious, venturesome and plain



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:45

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:45

The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed





It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you."



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:46

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:47

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:48

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:48

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:49

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:49

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:54

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:55

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
زمزم
المشرف العام
المشرف العام


ذهبى

شعلة المنتدى

وسام الابداع

اوفياء المنتدى

وسامالعطاء

انثى الابراج : السمك عدد المساهمات : 1658
تاريخ الميلاد : 11/03/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2010
العمر : 28

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    السبت 18 فبراير - 12:55

It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou! Thou art the Mighty,
the Wise."

[Qur'aan 2:129]

A standing norm of God Almighty is that He always answers the prayers
of those who are pious and devoted and pure in heart. The Messengers of
God peace be upon him occupy, without doubt, a higher place than the
most devout and the godliest believers. All the earlier scriptures and
prophecies bear witness to this fact. Even the Old Testament testifies
that the supplication of Abraham in regard to Ishmael peace be upon him
met the approval of the Lord. The Book of Genesis says:

"And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him,
and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."(Gen. 17:20)


That is why the Prophet peace be upon him is reported to have said:
"I am the (result of the) prayer of Abraham and prophecy of Jesus".
(Musnad Imam Ahmad) The Old Testament still contains, notwithstanding
its numerous recensions and alterations, the evidence that this prayer
of Abraham was answered by God. Mark the very clear reference in the
Book of Deuteronomy to the advent of a prophet.

"The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken."

(Deut. 18:15)

Now, this being a prognosis by Moses, "Thy brethren"clearly indicates
that the prophet promised by God was to be raised from amongst the
Ishmaelites who were the cousins of Israelites. God again reiterates His
promise in the same Book:

"And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have
spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like
unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto
them all that I shall command him".(Deut. 18:17-18)

The words 'put my words in his mouth' occurring in this oracle very
clearly indicate the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him who was to
recite and deliver to his people the divine revelation exactly as he
received them. This prediction has been substantiated by the Qur'an
also.

"Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire".

[Qur'aan 53:3]

Again, the Qur'an says about the revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him:

Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is! a revelation from the Wise, the Owner Praise.

[Qur'aan 41:42]

But, quite unlike the Qur'an, both the Bible and its followers
ascribe the authorship of the 'Books' included in the Bible to the
'ancient sages' and the 'great teachers' and never to the Divine Author
Himself. Modern Biblical scholars have reached the conclusion that:

"Ancient Jewish traditions attributed the authorship of the Pentateuch
(58) (with the exceptions of the last eight verses describing Moses'
death) to Moses himself. But the many inconsistencies and seeming
contradictions contained in it attracted the attention of the Rabbis,
who exercised their ingenuity in reconciling them."(Jewish Encyclopedia,
Vol. IX, p.589)

As for the 'Books' forming part of the New Testament, they have never
been treated, either literally or in their contents to be of Divine
origin. These books really contain a biographical account and anecdotes
of Jesus peace be upon him, as narrated by the later scribes, rather
than a Book of revelation sent unto the Master.(59)

We now come to the geographical position of Arabia, which, being
connected by land and sea routes with the continents of Asia, Africa and
Europe, occupied the most suitable place for being chosen as the center
of enlightenment for radiating divine guidance and knowledge to the
entire world. All the three continents had been cradles of great
civilizations and powerful empires, while Arabia lay in the center (60)
through which passed the merchandise of all the countries (61), far and
near, affording an opportunity to different nations and races for
exchange of thoughts and ideas. Two great empires, Sasanid and
Byzantine, on either side of the Arabian peninsula, governed the history
of the world. Both were large, rich and powerful, and both fought each
other constantly; yet, Arabia jealously guarded her independence and
never allowed either of the two powers to lay its hands on it, barring a
few territories lying on its frontiers. Excepting a few peripheral
tribes, the Arab of the desert was extremely sensitive to his regal
dignity and untrammeled freedom, and he never allowed any despot to hold
him in bondage. Such a country, unimpeded by political and social
constraints, was ideally suited to become the nucleus of a Universal
message preaching human equality, liberty and dignity.

For all these reasons God had selected Arabia, and the city of Makkah
within it, for the advent of the Prophet peace be upon him to whom
divine Scripture was to be sent for the last time to pave the way for
proclamation of peace throughout the length and breadth of the world
from age to age.

"Allah knoweth best with whom to place His message."

[Qur'aan 6:125]



It was the will of God that the glorious sun of humanity's guidance,
which was to illuminate the world without end, should rise from the orb
of Arabia. For it was the darkest corner of this terrestrial globe, it
needed the most radiant daystar to dispel the gloom setting on it.

God had chosen the Arabs as the standard bearers of Islam for
propagating its message to the four corners of the world, since these
guileless people were simple hearted, nothing was inscribed on the
tablets of their mind and heart, nothing so deep engraver as to present
any difficulty in sweeping the slate clean of every impression. The
Romans and the Iranians and the Indians, instinctually thrilled by the
glory of their ancient arts and literatures, philosophies, cultures and
civilizations were all crushed by the heavy burden of the past, that is,
a conditioned reflex of 'touch not-ism' had got itself indelibly etched
in their minds. The imprints in the memory of the Arabs were lightly
impressed merely because of their rawness and ignorance or rather their
nomadic life, and thus these were liable to he obliterated easily and
replaced by new inscriptions. They were, in modern phraseology,
suffering from imperceptiveness which could readily be remedied while
other civilized nations, having vivid pictures of the past filled in
their minds, were haunted by an obsessive irrationality which could
never be dismissed from their thoughts.

The Arabs, simple minded and straightforward, possessed the will of
iron. If they failed to entertain a belief, they had no hesitation in
taking up the sword to fight against it; but if they were convinced of
the truth of an idea, they stayed with it through fire and water and
were ever prepared to lay down their lives for it.

It was this psyche of the Arab mind which had found expression
through Suhayl b. 'Am, while the armistice of Hudaybia was being
written. The document began with the words: "This is what MUHAMMED, the
Messenger of God has agreed". Suhayl promptly raised the objection, "By
God, If I witnessed that you were God's Messenger I would not have
excluded you from the House of God and fought you". Again, it was the
same Arab turn of mind which is reflected in the summons of 'Ikrama b.
Abu Jahl. Pressed hard by the assailing charge of the Byzantine forces
he cried out, "What a dolt you are! I have wielded the sword against the
Messenger of God. Will I turn my back upon you ?" Thereafter he called
out to his comrades, "Is there anyone to take the pledge of death on my
hands?" Several persons immediately offered themselves and fought
valiantly until they were all maimed and came to a heroic end. (Tabari,
Vol. IV, p.36)

The Arabs were frank and unassuming, practical and sober,
industrious, venturesome and plain spoken. They were neither double
dealers nor liked to be caught in a trap. Like a people true soured,
they were always out spoken and remained firm once they had taken a
decision. An incident, occurring before the Hijrah of the Prophet peace
be upon him, on the occasion of the second pledge of 'Aqaba, typically
illustrates the character of the Arabs.

Ibn Is'haq relates that when Aus and Khazraj plighted their faith to
the Prophet peace be upon him at 'Aqaba , 'Abbaas b. 'Ubada of Khazraj
said to his people, "O men of Khazraj, do you realize to what you are
committing yourselves in pledging your support to the Prophet? It is to
war against one and all. If you think that in case you lose your
property and your nobles are killed you will give him up to his enemies,
then do so now; for, by God, it would bring you shame in this world and
the next. But if you have decided that you will be true to your words
if your property is destroyed and your nobles are killed, then pledge
yourselves; for, by God, it would bring you profit and success both in
this world and the next." The Khazraj replied: "We will pledge our
support even if we lose our property and our leaders are killed; but, O
Messenger of Allah, what will we get in return for redeeming our
pledge"' "Paradise", said the Prophet peace be upon him in reply.
Thereupon they said, "Stretch forth your hand"; and when the Prophet
did so, they took their oath." (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 446)

And in truth and reality, the Ansaar (46) lived up to their word of
honor. The reply given to the Prophet peace be upon him on a subsequent
occasion by S'ad b. Mu'adh perfectly expressed their feelings. S'ad had
said to the Prophet peace be upon him, "By God, if you continue your
march and get as far as Bark al Ghimad,(47) we would accompany you and
if you were to cross this sea, we would plunge into it with you." (48)

"My Lord, this ocean has interrupted my march although I wanted to go
ahead and proclaim the name in all the lands and seas"(49) These were
the words uttered despairingly by 'Uqba b. Nafi' on reaching the shore
of the Atlantic ocean. What 'Uqba said on finding his victorious advance
blocked by the ocean speaks volumes of the seriousness, absolute trust
and iron will of the Arabs in accomplishing the task considered truthful
by them.

The Greeks, the Byzantines and the Iranians were peoples of a
different mettle. Accustomed to improving the shining hour as a godsend
opportunity, they lacked the grit to fight against injustice and
brutality. No ideal, no principle was attractive enough for them: no
conviction or call was sufficiently potent to tug at their heartstrings
in a way that they could imperil their comfort and pleasure.

Unspoiled by the nicety, polish and ostentatious ness usually
produced by the display of wealth and luxury of an advanced culture, the
Arabs had not developed that fastidiousness which hardens the heart and
ossifies the brain, allows no emotion to catch the flame and always
acts as an inhibition when one's faith or conviction demands stirring of
the blood. This is the listless apathy which is hardly ever erased from
one's heart.

Candidly honest and true souled, the Arabs had no taste for intrigue
and duplicity. They were courageous, intrepid fighters accustomed to a
simple and hard life filled with dangers and spent most of their time
riding on horse backs across the waterless desert. These were the rules
of iron essential for a nation required to accomplish a great task,
especially, in an age when adventure and enterprise were the laws of
Medes and Persians.

The common ignorance of the Arabs, exempted from the shame or
reproach it involves, had helped to conserve the natural briskness and
intellectual energy of these people. Being strangers to philosophies and
sophistry, ratiocination and lame and impotent quibbling, they had
preserved their soundness of mind, dispatch, resoluteness and fervidness
of spirit.

The perpetual independence of Arabia from the yoke of invaders had
made the Arabs free as birds; they enjoyed the benefits of human
equality and beauty of living nature; and were not acquainted with the
pomp or majesty or haughty demeanor of the emperors. The servile temper
of the ancient Persia had, contrarily, exalted the Sasanian monarchs to
supernatural beings. If any king took a medicine or was given
phlebotomy, a proclamation was made in the capital that all and sundry
should suspend their trades and business on that day.(50) If the king
sneezed, nobody dared raise his voice to say grace, nor was anybody
expected to say 'Amen' when the king sent up a prayer. The day any king
paid a visit to any noble or chief was regarded an event so memorable
that the elated family of the fortunate grandee instituted a new
calendar from that day. It was an honor so singular that the grandee was
exempted from payment of taxes for a fixed period besides enjoying
other rewards, fiefs and robes of honor.(51)

We can imagine what a state audience of the king must have been like
for those who were allowed to appear before him. By etiquette, all the
courtiers, even the highest nobles and dignitaries, were required to
stand silently with their hands folded on the navel, and their heads
bowed in reverence.(52) Actually, this was the ceremonial etiquette
prescribed for State audience during the reign of Chosroes I (531-579),
known as Anushirvan (of the Immortal Soul) and 'Adil (the Just). One can
very well visualize the pompous ceremonials in vogue during the reign
of Sasanid kings justly reputed as tyrants and despots.

Freedom of speech and expres​sion(and not censure or criticism, in
the least) was a luxury never indulged in by anyone in the vast kingdom
of the Sasanids. Christensen has related, on the authority of At-Tabari,
a story about Chosroes I, passing under the name of 'The dust' among
the Sasanid kings, which demonstrates the freedom of allowed by the
Iranian kings and the price paid for the imprudence of speaking out the
truth.

"He assembled his council and ordered the secretary for taxes to read
aloud the new rates of collection. When the secretary had announced the
rates, Chosroes I asked twice whether anyone had any objection to the
new arrangement. Everybody remained silent but on the third time of
asking, a man stood up and asked respectfully whether the king had meant
to establish a tax for perpetuity on things perishable, which, as time
went on, would lead to injustice. "Accursed and rash !" cried the King,
"To what class do you belong?" "I am one of the secretaries", replied
the mall "Then', ordered the king, "Beat him to death with pen cases".
Thereupon every secretary started beating him with his pen case until
the poor man died, and the beholders exclaimed: "O King, we find ,all
the taxes you have levied upon us, just and fair!""

Iran ba 'Ahad Sasaniyan, p.511)

The horrible condition of the depressed classes in the then India,
who were condemned as untouchables by the social and religious laws
promulgated by the Aryans, baffles all human understanding. Subjected to
it gruesome indignity, this unfortunate class of human being was
treated pretty much the same way as pet animals except that they
resembled the species of man. According to this law, a Sudra who
assaulted a Brahmin or attempted to do so, was to lose the limb with
which the assault was made. The Sudra was forced to drink boiling oil if
he made the pretentious claim of teaching somebody. (Manil Shahtra, 10
Chapter) The penalty for killing dogs, cats, frogs, chameleons, crows
and owls was the same as that for killing the Sudras. (R.C. Dutt,
Ancient India, Vol. III, pp. 324 qnd 343)

Unworthy treatment of their subjects by the Sasanian Emperors had not
been the lot of the common man in Byzantium, but in their pride and
policy to display the titles and attributes of their omnipotence, the
Caesars of Rome had all the signs of their oriental counterparts.

Victor Chopart writes about the arbitrary rule and majesty of the
Roman Emperors. "The Caesars were gods, but not by heredity, and one who
rose to power would become divine in his turn, and there was no mark by
which he could be recognized in advance. The transmission of the title
of Augustus was governed by no regular constitutional law; it was
acquired by victory over rivals, and the Senate did no more than ratify
the decision of arms. This ominous fact became apparent in the first
century of the Principate, which was merely a continuance of the
military dictatorship." (53)

If we compare the servile submission of the common man of Byzantium
and Persia with the spirit of freedom and pride, as well as the
temperament and social conduct of the pre-Islamic Arabs, we would see
the difference between the social life and natural propensities of the
Arabs and other nations of the world.

"May you be safe from frailty", and "Wish you a happy morning", were
some of the salutations very often used by the Arabs to hail their
kings. So solicitous were they of preserving their dignity and pride,
honor and freedom that many a time they even refused to satisfy the
demands of their chiefs and rulers. A story preserved by Arab historians
admirably describes the rudimentary Arab virtues of courage and
outspokenness. An Arab king demanded a mare known as Sikab from its
owner belonging to Bani Tamim. The man flatly refused the request and
instantly indited a poem of which the opening lines were:

Sikab is a nice mare, good as gold,

Too precious it is to be gifted or sold.

And, in the concluding verse he said:

To grab it from me, make no effort,

For I am competent to balk your attempt. (54)

The virtues common to all Arabs, men and women, were their
overweening pride, loftiness of ambition, chivalrous bearing,
magnanimous generosity and a wild, invigorating spirit of freedom. We
find all these features of Arab character depicted in the affair leading
to the murder of 'Amr b. Hind, the King of Hira. It is related that
'Amr b. Hind once sent to 'Amr b. Kulthum, the proud cavalier and noted
poet of Banu Taghlib, inviting him to pay a visit to himself, and also
to bring his mother, Layla bint Muhalhil, to visit his own mother. 'Amr
came to Hira from Jazira with some of his friends, and Layla came
attended by a number of her women. Pavilions were erected between Hira
and the Euphrates. In one of these pavilions 'Amr b. Hind entertained
'Amr b. Kulthum, while Layla found quarters with Hind in an adjoining
tent. Now, 'Amr b. Hind had already instructed his mother to dismiss the
servants before calling for dessert, and thus cause Layla to wait upon
her. Accordingly, Hind sent off her servants at the appointed moment and
asked her guest, "O Layla, hand me that dish." Layla felt insulted and
exclaimed in shame, "Let those who want anything, fetch it for
themselves". Hind insisted on her demand despite Layla's refusal. At
last Layla cried, "O shame! Help Taghlib, help !" 'Amr b. Kulthum got
his blood up on hearing his mother's cry and seizing a sword hanging on
the wall, smote the King dead with a single blow. At the same time, the
tribesmen of Banu Taghlib ransacked the tents and made rapid strides
back of Jazira. 'Amr b. Kulthum has narrated this story in an ode which
is a fine illustration of the pre-Islamic ideal of chivalry. It was
included in the Sab'a Mu'allaqat or the Seven Suspended Odes.(55)

The same Arab tradition of democracy tempered by aristocracy is to be
witnessed in the meeting between the Arab envoy, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and
Rustam, the Sasanian General and administrator of the empire. When
Mughira entered the splendid court of Rustam, he found the latter
sitting on a throne. Mughira made his way direct to Rustam, as was an
Arab's wont, and sat down on the throne by the side of Rustam. Rustam's
courtiers, however, lost no time in getting Mughira down from the throne
of their chief. Thereupon Mughira said, "We had heard that you are a
sagacious people but now I see that none is more block headed than you.
We Arabs treat everybody as an equal and enslave no man save on the
battlefield. I had presumed that you would also be conducting yourselves
similarly towards your own people. You should have better told us that
you have exalted some amongst you as your gods; for, we would have then
known that no dialogue was possible between us and you. In that case we
would not have dealt with you in the way we have done, nor came to see
you, although it was you who invited us here." (Tabari, Vol. IV, p. 108)


There was yet another reason for the advent of the last Prophet
peace be upon him in Arabia and it was Ka'ba, the House of God, built by
Abraham and Ishmael peace be upon him as the center for worship of One
God.

"Lo ! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca (56), a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples."

[Qur'aan 3:96]

There is a mention of the valley of Baca in the Old Testament. The
old translators of the Bible gave this word the meaning of 'a valley of
weeping', but better sense seems to have prevailed later on. According
to more recent of the Biblical scholars, the word 'signifies rather any
valley lacking water, and 'the Psalmist apparently has in mind a
-particular valley whose natural condition led him to adopt that
name.(57) Now, this waterless valley, which can easily be identified
with the valley of Makkah, has been thus mentioned in the Book of
Psalms.

"Blessed art they that dwell in thy house; they will still be praising
thee Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; In whose
heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make
it a well. " [Psalm 84:4-6]

The birth of the Prophet MUHAMMED peace be upon him in the city of
Makkah was really an answer to the prayer sent up by Abraham and Ishmael
peace be upon him while laying the foundation of Ka'ba. They had
beseeched God in these words:

"Our Lord! And raise up unto them an Messenger from among them, who
shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall teach them the Book
and wisdom, and shall cleanse them. Verily Thou!



‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗













 
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
رضا
عضو مميز
عضو مميز


عدد المساهمات : 908
تاريخ التسجيل : 12/11/2010

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed    الثلاثاء 20 أغسطس - 12:28




‗۩‗°¨_‗ـ المصدر:منتدي المركز الدولى ـ‗_¨°‗۩‗









الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 
The Advent Of Prophet Muhammed
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